Glaucoma is a common disease of the eye in which raised ocular pressure leads to progressive damage to the optic nerve. Glaucoma is a complex disease with various different subtypes. In South Africa, primary open angle glaucoma is the commonest variety. If left untreated it may lead to permanent loss of vision and blindness. Glaucoma is the 2nd most common cause of blindness worldwide and the commonest cause of irreversible blindness.


For a variety of reasons, the aqueous fluid that is created within the eye drains out of the eye less efficiently, leading to a build of fluid and pressure. There are genetic, environmental and aging factors that lead to this phenomenon. Up to 3% of people are affected by glaucoma over the course of their lives.


Mild to moderate glaucoma tends to have no symptoms. It is only in the late stages of the disease process that the affected person’s peripheral field of vision becomes progressively worse. Eventually the loss of field comes closer to the centre of vision and ultimately vision is lost completely if the glaucoma is not treated. There is often a strong family history of glaucoma and patients with a family history must ensure they
are screened for glaucoma by an ophthalmologist.



Glaucoma cannot be cured but can be controlled. By using eye drops we are able to lower the eye pressures and prevent on-going optic nerve damage. Drop treatment is adequate for the vast majority of glaucoma patients but in a small group the pressure cannot be controlled by drops alone and surgery is required.


There are several different surgical procedures to treat glaucoma but they all share the same principle: to drain fluid from the eye by making a small, controlled conduit between the inside of the eye and the space under the conjunctival membrane on the outside of the eye.

We favour the use of drainage implant devices:

The iStent is a microscopic titanium stent that is implanted within the eye, typically in 2 locations within the trabecular meshwork. It is a minimally invasive glaucoma surgery effective for mild to moderate glaucoma and is frequently utilised at the same time as cataract surgery.

The Xen Gel implant is a tiny flexible tube that creates a conduit between the anterior chamber of the eye and an area beneath the conjunctival membrane, external to the eye.

The Ahmed tube shunt is a silicone tube that leads to a plastic reservoir where the fluid collects. The reservoir is permanently attached to the eye, underneath the conjunctiva membrane and under the upper eyelid. The reservoir has a valve which prevents the pressure from dropping too low.

The Baerveldt drain is much the same as the Ahmed device but is favoured in certain clinical situations over the Ahmed. It does not have a valve and typically takes 6-8 weeks to start working.

The Paul Glaucoma Implant is similar to both the Ahmed and Baerveldt and is favoured in certain clinical situations.


Glaucoma drainage surgery can be done under local anaesthetic with conscious sedation or under general anaesthetic. The surgery takes about 15 to 45 minutes depending on the procedure performed and is done in an outpatient theatre complex. An overnight stay is not required and patients are able to go home after the operation.


The risk of vision loss from not having the surgery will be very significantly higher than the risk of vision loss from having the surgery. Glaucoma can be very serious and sight-threatening and this surgery is intended to prevent vision loss and blindness.